MathML International Conference Abstract Most mathematical notation now in use is between one and five hundred years old. I will review how it developed, with precursors in antiquity and the Middle Ages, through its definition at the hands of Leibniz, Euler, Peano and others, to its widespread use in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. I will discuss the extent to which mathematical notation is like ordinary human language—albeit international in scope.
Kant's Life and Works Immanuel Kant is often said to have been the greatest philosopher since the Greeks. Certainly, he dominates the last two hundred years in the sense that - although few philosophers today are strictly speaking Kantians - his influence is everywhere.
Moreover, that influence extends over a number of different philosophical regions: Because of Kant's huge importance, and the variety of his contributions and influences, this encyclopedia entry is divided into a number of subsections. What follows here will be a brief account of Kant's life and works, followed by an overview of those themes that Kant felt bridged his philosophical works, and made them into one 'critical philosophy'.
In financial difficulties forced him to withdraw from the University. After nine years supporting himself as a tutor to the children of several wealthy families in outlying districts, he returned to the University, finishing his degree and entering academic life, though at first and for many years in the modest capacity of a lecturer.
He continued to work and lecture on, and publish widely, on a great variety of issues, but especially on physics and on the metaphysical issues behind physics and mathematics. He rarely left his home city, and gradually became a celebrity there for his brilliant, witty but eccentric character.
Kant's early work was in the tradition although not dogmatically even then of the great German rationalist philosopher Leibniz, and especially his follower Wolff. But by the s, he was increasingly admiring Leibniz's great rival Newton, and was coming under the additional influences of the empiricist skepticism of Hume and the ethical and political thought of Rousseau.
In this period he produced a series of works attacking Leibnizian thought. In particular, he now argued that the traditional tools of philosophy - logic and metaphysics - had to be understood to be severely limited with respect to obtaining knowledge of reality.
Similar, apparently skeptical, claims were relatively common in the Enlightenment. It was only in the late s, and especially in his Inaugural Dissertation of that Kant began to move towards the ideas that would make him famous and change the face of philosophy.
In the Dissertation, he argued for three key new ideas: Second, it follows that knowledge of sensible reality is only possible if the necessary concepts such as substance are already available to the intellect.
This fact, Kant argued, also limits the legitimate range of application of these concepts. Finally, Kant claimed that sensible presentations were of only appearances', and not things as they are in themselves.
This was because space and time, which describe the basic structure of all sensible appearances, are not existent in things in themselves, but are only a product of our organs of sense. Perceiving things in space and time is a function of the mind of the perceiver.
The hypothesis that both key concepts, and the basic structure of space and time, are a priori in the mind, is a basic theme of Kant's idealism see the entry on 'Kant's Metaphysics'.
It is important to recognize that this last claim about space and time also exacerbates the limitation imposed above by proposing a whole realm of 'noumena' or 'things in themselves' which necessarily lies beyond knowledge in any ordinary sense.Immanuel Kant: Aesthetics.
Immanuel Kant is an 18th century German philosopher whose work initated dramatic changes in the fields of epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, and teleology. Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he holds our mental faculty of reason in high esteem; he believes that it is our reason that invests the world we .
Clausewitz's personality has been treated in a great many different ways. To the British military historian Michael Howard he was a "soldier's soldier" who wrote a practical military philosophy aimed at practical military men. A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite feelthefish.com example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, 1 × 5 or 5 × 1, involve 5 feelthefish.comr, 6 is composite because it is the .
With the high school writing work in full swing, I’ve been remiss in posting here lately. I do have some ideas saved up! Meanwhile, Kate Nowak and I have a piece .
In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical feelthefish.com the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, can be feelthefish.com principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms, along with accepted rules of feelthefish.com may be treated as conditions .
Stephen Wolfram on mathematical notation's development from antiquity through Leibniz, Euler, Peano, & modern times, & how it is like human language.