Discussion of the aim of education is a function of the philosophy of education or 'educational theory'. The different understandings of education cultivate different avenues of human possibility.
History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.
Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.
Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge. He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking.
Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.
During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems other than 'improving' one's own thinking.
Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking.
Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.
It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal and, to a lesser extent, formal logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.
This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon".
Walters Re-thinking Reason,p.Connect with Can free trade and environmental protection coexist Last Week Tonight an analysis of the source and aim of true education online. It is appropriate not only to . There was once a civics textbook in Jamaican schools.
The presence of this book was indicative of the fact that there was a vision for our education system to produce patriotic and civic-minded citizens. April 19, By The MASS Team. Strength and Physique Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Master List.
Due to the significance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, we’ve put together a list and short take-home message of many recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses so you can cut straight to the chase of the results.
Homepage: feelthefish.com HOLISTIC EDUCATION: A NEW PARADIGM FOR TEACHING. Aim of Education: Personality Integration, Creative Intelligence and Enlightenment or 'Happiness'.
What are Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software? ERP, or Enterprise Resource Planning, integrates all the processes in an organization such as accounting, human resource, sales, support, inventory and customer support. Chapters —Source, History and Aim of True Education Our ideas of education take too narrow and too low a range.
There is need of a broader scope, a higher aim.